In this paper, a cost effective IoT system to gather and monitor in real-time both environmental and electric data of a PV solar station is proposed. The low-cost of this solution comes from the accurate choice of the controller and the instruments used. Two low-cost sensors are used to measure the enviremental variation: the DHT11 was used for temperature after its calibration with a thermometer. Then, the light sensor BH1170 which is a lux meter, was used in innovative way to measure solar irradiance after deducing an accurate data-driven approximation between the lux meter and a calibrated pyranometer. These solutions lead to decrease the total cost of the system. For the electrical parameters, the power/current sensor INA219 was empoyed to measure the current, voltage and the power generated by PV array.
The paper investigates studies on the tools and techniques used in existing solar plant monitoring systems. Furthermore, a smart low cost IoT solution for monitoring the electrical and environmental parameters of photovoltaic system is proposed. An implementation of a laboratory prototype is established to demonstrate the performance of the developed solution. Several smart sensors, a cutting-edge controller and an algorithm for solar array monitoring are described in this work to provide real time data to stakeholders. Besides, a low-cost indirect measurement method is proposed to decrease the cost of the measurement instruments. The experimental test bench is enhanced by integrating alerts for anomaly detections in PV stations. Finally, the cost effectiveness of the proposed solution has found essentially in the low-cost edge sensing methods, open source software and processing technologies used. The study is validated by an economical study of the proposed acquisition and monitoring system.
After messing about with solar panels and lead acid battery charging for a arduino project in the UK. I managed to easily keep it all running on a 15W solar panel. Lessons learnt however is to get the most from the battery it is better to charge a 12v battery and use a step down buck converter for a 5v project, because from 13.6v to 11.2v is the useable stored energy. If you just use a lipo at 4.7v on an esp32 running at 3v you only get 4.7 to 3.2v useful energy. However some one suggested Super capacitors. This is a concept i never considered before, but after my experience of solar , I think this is a brilliant solution. So from what i have learnt i would suggest a 16V 20F(because most quality solar panels are 12V(18Vmppt) and 16V packs are cheap and pre built) super capacitor pack using a MPPT module (maximum power point tracking solar charger ) that is designed for 14.2v lead acid charging. this will prevent over voltage on the capacitors. And for the voltage to the ESP32 use a step up step /down 5v buck converter for usb or direct to the board set at 3V. The advantage to the Super capacitors is fast charge up in sunlight . Not effected by low temperatures and effective discharge voltage from 14.2V down to 0V because of no deep cycle damage. I have ordered a Super capacitor pack and i already have the rest of the kit on the shelf. Let you know how it turns out.
The ESP32 is a tiny, powerful, and inexpensive micro controller from Espressif. It has Wi-Fi and Bluetooth built in which makes it great for IoT projects. In this post I will talk about running an ESP32 on solar power. This post is not specific per-se to ESP32s and could be applied to any small 3v device.
The Renogy BT-1 Bluetooth Module (New Version) pairs great with any compatible Renogy solar charge controller. This updated model boasts an increased signal range of up to 82 feet and an additional LED to indicate when your devices have synced. Plug the BT-1 into your controller's RJ12 port to seamlessly monitor and change settings straight from your smart device through the DC Home App (available in both the App Store and Google Play).
The nodemcu ESP32 is a series of low-cost, low-power microcontrollers with built-in ESP32 Wi-Fi and dual-mode Bluetooth. The ESP32 is designed for low-power Internet of Things applications. Its high processing power, combined with built-in Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and Deep Sleep Operating features, 520 KB of SRAM, 448 KB of ROM, and 4MB of Flash memory (for software and data storage) makes it appropriate for most Portable IoT devices. 2b1af7f3a8